Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Understanding property investment and finance - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2384 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? Corporate and project-based funding for a property company: The benefits of the various types of corporate and project-based funding are determined by the size of the property company looking for funding, whether it is listed on the stock exchange, and whether it is a property investor or a property trader. Discuss I. Introduction The uncertainty and the difficulties of the modern economies have create the necessity of alternative sources of finance solutions both for the companies and for the individuals that are dealing with a commercial activity, either as investors or as traders. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Understanding property investment and finance" essay for you Create order Although the existing types of financial resources are characterized by diversity and flexibility, the gathering and the evaluation of the data needed for such a procedure to be completed is usually a very difficult task. This assumption has lead to the use of specialized services, like the financial or the business management, which could help the survival of the corporate or the individual business and could guarantee its growth for the future. One of the industries that suffer a high pressure is that of the property investment. The use of property as a mean to achieve a more stable and guarantee source of income has been a common phenomenon of the commercial activity both during the past and to our days. The investment to property can offer the stability and the promise of a slow (but more guarantee) profit and such an attribute is very desirable especially during the periods that suffer from constant fluctuation and financial pressure. On the other hand, property as an investm ent option contains a lot of special features that give to it a unique and, sometimes, a risky character. Enever N. and Isaac D. (1994, 17-22) argue that the property is distinguished compared the other types of investments. They present a series of attributes that are considered as related with the property investment, with a special reference to its heterogeneity, which is explained as the unique elements that usually characterize each property, like its location, its design and its size. They also consider the inelasticity of its supply as a major factor that formulate and control the flow of the activities that are connected to this financial sector. More specifically, they state that the number of property that are offered during a period of time tend to be limited and cannot change during the periods that present increase or reduction in demand. Other factors that constitute a special feature regarding the property investment area are, according to Enever N. and Isaak D. (1994 , 19-20) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the high risks (physical risks, risk of liability and financial risk), the imperfect knowledge and the government interventionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Under the above circumstances of uncertainty and constant fluctuation, the property market could be characterized as a risky choice for investing. However, the absence of stability in the international market has created the necessity for a secure option regarding the investment decisions. And we should recognize that although the property has a lot of changing factors, it is still one of the most safe type of investment activities due mostly to its physical existence and the increase of value that tend to present even in difficult financial circumstances. II. Design of the corporate and project-based funding of a company or individual that is activated in the property sector A. Useful data à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" gathering, evaluation In order to achieve an integrated solution concerning the funding of a pro perty-based activity, we have to gather and analyze a series of data, mostly financial ones, which represent the trend of the market, the position of the property investment as a commercial (and income provided) activity and the general strengths and weaknesses of the sector. An absolutely necessary indicator is that of the current property market. When referring to the above market in general, we usually mean the construction works that are in progress, the volume and the price of the transactions made in the area of land and buildings and the rate of investment that is being made in the property area. Hargitay S. and Yu S.M. (1993, 256) divide the sources that can be used towards that purpose into the following two categories: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the traditional sources (e.g. directories, handbooks and encyclopedias, statistics, economic forecasts, trade literature, newspapers and so on) and the contemporary sources (property databases, on-line and information services and consultan cy services)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. The gathering and the evaluation of the above data is usually the work of the financial or business management team, which has the responsibility to represent an integrated and updated à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"imageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ of the market in the relevant sector. This à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"imageà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ is going to be used afterwards for the design of a detailed financial plan that is going to be applied for a specific property investor (company or individual) regarding his funding from a state (or private) institution. B. Use of the financial data for the design of a funding strategy à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" role of the financial manager In order to produce an integrated and effective funding strategy for a property investor (a company or an individual) we have to analyze, as above mentioned, the financial data (that have been gathered with the pre-described procedure) and decide the best available tool that meets the specific requirements. After building a pricing model (using the current discount rate) and produce a forecast, the evaluation of risk can help us to construct a dynamic portfolio management plan that will present the structure, the development and the aim of the funding. Under the above circumstances, the management team has to consider the design and the presentation of a funding strategy that will meet the specific requirements and will guarantee (at the most possible level) the achievement of the scopes. In that occasion, according with the Hoesli, M. and McGregor, B.D., (2000, 179) the decisions that are going to be made should meet the following requirements: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"a) a statement of objectives, i.e. identification of the benchmark, evaluation of risk and the return that will follow and the timescale, b) a detailed and clear portfolio analysis, i.e. presentation of the current structure referring to the benchmark, c) calculation of the expected stock return and risk, d) explanation of the poss ible consequences and the further necessary actions in case that no action is taken, e) presentation of a strategy for the specific portfolio plan (property that is needed to be bought, the one that it should be sold and the asset management that could be most effective for the above strategyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. The role and the competence of the management team are then evaluated using the criteria of effectiveness regarding the achievement of the above targets (see also the plan of British Land for refinancing of a part of its development in order to secure extra funding, Daily Mail, 22/1/2005). The basic characteristics of the successful management solution seems to be however, the concentration on the specific requirements, the production of an achievable strategy (as of the resources and the money that are going to be used for its completion) and the level of the achievement of the final target. C. Aspects and elements of the funding strategy investment plans for the incre ase of long-term debt finance When building a financial strategy we should primarily consider the sector in which this plan is going to be applied. If the model of activities that is going to be designed, does not meet the requirements of the specific industry market, then its failure is inevitable even if its structure and its operation could otherwise be characterized as effective and profitable. One of the most known strategies for the property finance has been the mortgage-backed borrowing (a plan that it is currently followed by a lot of investment banks is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"to teaming up with management operators to take over property companiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ The Lawyer, 26/3/2001). The above technique had been used mostly in the US and then it has been extended to the rest of the world market as a secure method to finance the property investment (J. Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Connor, 2005. 9). Enever N. and Isaak D. (1994, 6) distinguish between the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"directà ¢Ã¢â €š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"indirectà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ investment to property. As they state, the direct investment refers to the acquisition of the property à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"by auction, by tender, by private treaty, by take-over bid, by property development and by sale and lease-backà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ whereas the indirect investment can be achieved by investing in à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"property bonds or in shares in property companiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. Pike R. and Neale B. (1999, 513) explore another type of raising long-term debt finance, that of leasing and sale-and-leaseback. According to the explanation of term à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"leasingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ as it is presented by Pike R. and Neale B. (1999, 433) leasing is a technique that offers to a company the option to obtain the use of piece of equipment which cannot buy it as a whole unit because it has not the financial strength for such a purchase or maybe donà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢t want to dispose all the amount of money needed for su ch an acquisition and prefer to divide the total price into a long-term debt plan arranged for the use of the specific item (and for its acquisition after a period of time). The sale-and-leaseback technique is characterized by the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"transfer of the ownership of a specific item of property but with the retention of the use of it for a pre-arranged period of timeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ (Pike R. and Neale B., 1999, 514). The vendor can achieve a growth to its capital, but on the other hand he has to abandon all his rights to the specific item and all the gain that followed it (as an example, Pike and Neale refer the capital appreciation, 514). On the other hand, Damodaran A. (2001, 488-492) suggests the following debt financing options: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"the bank debt (which is included in the mortgage-backed debt that was analyzed above), the bonds (which are offered only to the large firms) and the leasingà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. All the above proposed plans can operate normall y and according to their purpose when the analysis of the business data is combined with a complete evaluation of the specific financial industry (i.e. in our case the property market) as well as the preparation of a detailed and accurate financial strategy that could protect both the investor and the debtor if a change in the terms and the conditions of the plan occur. III. Types of property investors à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" financial behaviour of the debtors The property market is an area of investment both for companies and for individuals. The needs for a long-term debt finance plan are being increased especially in our days (shortage of cash flow, constant fluctuation, unstable economic and political environment in the international community). Under the above circumstances, the behaviour of the debtors is being transformed in order to respond to the increase of the demand for funding and to cover à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" at the upper possible level à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" the risk of lo ss as a consequence of the general financial uncertainty. Moreover, according to C. Benson (1999) the investors tend to prefer the structural growth rather than the cyclical growth. Although the type of the property investor (an individual or a company) is of major importance particularly when referring to the cover of the risk of loss of the institution that offers the option of funding, there is an element that equals the position of these two types of investors in the property market and this is the existence of risk. Someone could argue of course that in the case of the individual investors, the risk is much higher, however the existence of companies with no real financial credentials, has eliminate the application of such a criterion when a decision for funding is to be taken. Under the above circumstances, we could recognize both to the individuals and the corporate investors the right to ask for a funding in order to secure their activities in the property investment se ctor. The prerequisite for such a decision by the institutions which are authorized for activities of that kind, should be the proper and effective use of the available resources rather the level of the financial position of the investor, which could in any case be differentiate if an unexpected loss appears. IV. Conclusion The design and the operation of the property market have imposed the funding as the only safe solution for the financial recovery of both the corporate and the private property investors. The relevant decision has to be formulated after a careful examination of the condition of the interested party bearing in mind that the current financial position of an investor can easily change in accordance with his preferences when moving to an investment decision. Furthermore, discussing for the funding decision, the financial turbulences that tend to appear from time to time even in the strong markets, impose the existence of sufficient and detailed information whic h has to be combined with an accurate and well à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" organized financial plan. The role of the management team is à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" in that case à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" decisive as it can create all the prerequisites for a successful investment decision. References A. Books Brett, M., (1997), Property and Money à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" A simple guide to property investment and finance Damodaran, A., (2001), Corporate Finance à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Theory and Practice Enever, N., Isaak, D., (1994), The Valuation of Property Investments Hargitay S.E., Yu M.S., (1993), Property Investment Decisions à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" A quantitative approach Hoesli, M., Macgregor, B. D., (2000), Property Investment à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Principles and Practice of Portfolio Management Myddelton, D. R., (2000), Managing Business Finance Parker, R. H., (1994), Understanding Company Financial Statements Pike, R., Neale, B., (1999), Corporate Finance and Investment B. Journals Benson, C., (1999), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"With low inflation and a focus on shareholder value, the quoted sector will see massive mergers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" and departures, argues Sir Christopher Benson, be big or de-list, you can quote meà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Estates Gazette (3/7/1999, 73) Catalano, A., (1999), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Wealth Generation without inflationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Estates Gazette, (5/6/1999, 57) Law Society Gazette, (2003), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"News à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Company + Commercial: News in Briefà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, (27/3/2003, 12:8) Oà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Connor, J., (2005), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"UK companies unlock wealth from their bricks and mortarà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, The Lawyer (Feb. 28/2005, 9) The Lawyer, (2001), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"London Real Estate: Battersea Power Stationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, (May 21/2001, 31) The Lawyer, (2001), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"A O and Dechert flex their property muscles in BPT dealà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, (Mar. 26/2001, 15) The Lawyer, (2004), à ¢Ã ¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"White Collar Crime: Writing the wrongà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, The Lawyer, (15/11/2004, 27) Trevelyan, L., (2004), à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Real Estate Investment Trusts: REIT Here, REIT Nowà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Law Society Gazette, (7/10/2004, 38:20) C. Newspapers Daily Mail, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Britland in plan to raise extra pounds 500mà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, (22/1/2005, 104) Keers, H., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Miners and WPP fuel indexà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s return to 5000à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, The Daily Telegraph, (26/2/2005, 33) Smith, P., Mullock, S., à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Football: How millions were slashed off price of Elland Road; special report: Paul Smith and Simon Mullock investigateà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Sunday Mirror, (6/3/2005, 69)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

We See Them Everywhere. You Most Likely Took A Ride In

We see them everywhere. You most likely took a ride in one before even being out of the womb. A transporting vehicle, more specifically, a person automobile is one of the most accessible items in the world. Your parents use them to get to work. Extra big vehicles load and bring your groceries to the local market. If you do not have one, there are services where taxis can take you to reach your destination. The usage of vehicles can be unlimited! Vehicles transportation has revolutionized literally the whole world, but with success, failure follows. Once cars started getting into the hands of the everyday people, cars became coffins. The first internal combustion vehicle was made by a French inventor and politician†¦show more content†¦Many car designers changed the look Marcus’ vehicle, but the major change was done by Emile Levassor, moving the engine to the front of the vehicle with rear wheel drive. This enhanced the vehicles balance and improved steering which con structed the stereotypical build of today’s cars. With the gasoline powered engine outselling all other sorts of motor vehicle, the market blew up so manufactures had to accustom to the need. Many entrepreneurs hopped on the opportunity and started making cars, assembling them piece by piece, and one car at a time resulting in making one hundred vehicles per year. The first vehicle to be mass produced in the U.S. was the 1901 Curved Dash Oldsmobile built by American Ransome Eli Olds. Olds was the inventor of the basic concept of the assembly line. He moved to Detroit and started the Olds Motor Works with the dream of producing low priced cars. For the year of 1901, he was able to produce four hundred twenty five â€Å"curved Dash Olds† and was leading America’s auto manufacturer for the next 3 years. It was not until 1903 when Henry Ford formed the Ford Motor Company, revolutionizing the whole industry. ‘Around 1913, he installed the first conveyor belt based assembly line in his Michigan plant in Ford’s Highland Park. Reducing assembly time, the cost was greatly reduced. After all his factories were upgraded with the assembly line, Ford became the world’s largest carShow MoreRelatedPeople With Mental Illnesses Should Not Have / Own Guns1241 Words   |  5 Pagesmental health conditions disorders that affect your mood, thinking, and behavior. Examples like Autism, Anxiety Issues, and many more that affect them. It is so easy for anyone to get guns. About over 300 million have been made and sold to people in 2012, so there is a large supply of them. (My Turn: Should People with Mental Illnesses Own Guns?†, 2015). You can easily get one by just bribing a stranger or from a family member so it’s very easy to get one. 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Implementing Cloud Computing Environment for Critical Factors

Question: Discuss about theImplementing Cloud Computing Environment for Critical Factors. Answer: Introduction The advancement of technology has reached to a level where it can be used in the implementation of ICT or Information and Communication Technology based businesses. The growth of e-commerce has facilitated the implementations as well. The integration between cloud computing and e-commerce provides solution to the improvement of economic growth based on technology (Laudon and Laudon 2016). The following report would include such implementation of cloud computing into the business of the furniture e-commerce called ALLOHA Furniture World, the benefits and risks associated with the implementation, the comparison of the risks and benefits inherent in cloud computing, the mitigation strategies for the risks and if ALLOHA Furniture should implement cloud computing or not. Benefits and risks of using cloud computing in ALLOHA Furniture World The benefits of cloud computing are myriad in the arena of e-commerce businesses. Firstly, cloud computing provides and e-commerce application to cater to the changing demands and scenarios of the market improving its scalability and the architecture that the business needs. Secondly, since in an e-commerce application, speed is the most important aspect to keep the customers glued, cloud computing provides with greater storage, computational power and bandwidth (Laudon and Laudon 2016). It also reduces maintenance and storage cost by implementing the technology in the virtual cyberspace and makes the entire system tolerant to any disaster. However, there are few risks associated with the system as well. Cloud environment, due to its distributive nature, is susceptible to security issues and forms one of the major concerns. In addition, as cloud computing uses virtual computer technology, users personal data is kept on various virtual data centres, which may cross international boundaries, making it more vulnerable to risks. Comparison of the risks and benefits inherent in cloud computing The risks and the benefits that are inherent in cloud computing has a steer clear chance of forming a risk about data vulnerability issues. The cloud-computing environment has indeed made a revolutionary change in adapting to a technology that is devoid of any physical storage system. An e-commerce application may be a representation of a virtual shop however; it does not possess any physical existence (Demydov et al. 2015). Therefore, implementation of the cloud computing environment e-commerce applications is indeed a benefit but also the risks make it prone to become a greater threat. There is no virtual limitation in cloud storage and therefore there are no limitations in the storage areas. The vast storage capability, however is a plus point but also has the potential to make the e-commerce application fall victim to data theft and data security issues. If ALLOHA Furniture World should move to using cloud services or not It is recommended that Alloha Furniture World should implement cloud services. This is because, the implementation of the e-commerce among small and medium entrepreneurs, which have limited resources and these enterprises, would want to develop and expand marketing with e-commerce, can use cloud services that are free or have a low cost. Cloud implementation is adjustable and has the potential to make the business scalable in nature (Wang et al. 2016). This would easily make the business of Alloha Furniture reach a soaring high increasing their customer base. Cloud service implementation also needs a very low economic range in comparison with other technological implementations. The integrity and security risks could also be mitigated, as many cloud service providers have good integrity and the cost can be customized to the requirements. With good infrastructure, especially for a provider reliable provider, implementation of these services could be easily done for Aloha Furniture Wor ld. Mitigation strategies to reduce the risks of moving to the cloud Cloud computing offers solutions as well along with the risks it provides in implementing the technology into e-commerce applications. It should be kept in mind that the cloud computing technology services should not be implemented without proper knowledge of the mitigation strategies by an e-commerce application (Lian 2015). These mitigation strategies are overseen by a hypervisor, with good understanding of the risks of a cloud computing environment. These could be done by the following methods: Implementation of critical methods to protect and prohibit the sharing of accounts and their credentials between users Using single sign-on (SSO) in the organization Working with experts to ensure cloud security regularly Implementation of end-to-end encryption Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded that, it is very beneficial for the e-commerce website application of Alloha Furniture World to implement the latest technology of cloud-based services to increase their customer base. Although, the technology has its risks along with the added benefits, there are ways that they can be mitigated to extract the proper utilization of the technology. The report establishes in details about the risks and benefits that the cloud services offer and how they can be utilised to benefit the business for Alloha Furniture World even mitigating the impending risks. Reference Demydov, I.V., Strykhalyuk, B.M., Shpur, O.M., Mohamed, M.E.H. and Klymash, Y.V., 2015. The structural-functional synthesis of cloud service delivery platform after service availability and performance criteria. , (1), pp.144-159. Laudon, K.C. and Laudon, J.P., 2016. Management information system. Pearson Education India. Lian, J.W., 2015. Critical factors for cloud based e-invoice service adoption in Taiwan: An empirical study.International Journal of Information Management,35(1), pp.98-109. Wang, S., Wan, J., Li, D. and Zhang, C., 2016. Implementing smart factory of industrie 4.0: an outlook.International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks,12(1), p.3159805.

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Personal Jurisdiction of a Court

Personal jurisdiction stands for the court’s authority over individuals to a court case. If a court has personal jurisdiction over a party to a lawsuit, it can pass judgments that affect the person directly. Otherwise, the court can only exercise its powers to a level that the state powers give it. In other terms, personal jurisdiction refers to the capacity of the court to pass a verdict against an individual over a particular dispute.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Personal Jurisdiction of a Court specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Personal jurisdiction allows courts to make judgment even if one of the parties affected by the judgment does not reside in the state or is absent during the judgment. According to Nebraska Long-arm Statute, any court in the state has the right to exercise personal jurisdiction over any person who directly, or through the help of agents, carries out any business transactio n in the state. For personal jurisdiction to hold, the defendant has to be ‘really at home.’ Personal jurisdiction can only be applicable if an individual has direct contacts with the state where an action is filed. Software.com does not have direct contact with Nebraska. The company does not have any subsidiary in the state and only sells its products in Nebraska through the internet. Consequently, it is hard for Nebraska courts to exercise personal jurisdiction over Software.com. Products from a company in a different state may reach a different jurisdiction in the process of trading. Nevertheless, this does not imply that the respective company has minimum contact with that jurisdiction. The same case applies to Software.com. The fact that its products reach the Nebraska state does not mean that the company has minimum contact with the state. Consequently, it is hard for the courts in the state to exercise personal jurisdiction over the company. This case study on Personal Jurisdiction of a Court was written and submitted by user Sebastian Berg to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Free Essays on Sex And Gender

Sex and Gender The definition of sex simply refers to whether one is a male or a female based upon reproductive organs. It can also be referred to as the biological sex, or sex chromosomes such as XX for females and XY for males. In our reading of Mary Whiton Calkins, we saw that she was discriminated based upon her sex. Even though she had fulfilled all of the requirements for her Ph.D., Harvard did not grant degrees to women at that time. In our reading about Mary Crawford, she was also discriminated against her sex, time and time again, throughout her life and career. Gender, on the other hand, is more simply put as gender roles. The roles are usually considered masculine or feminine. Gender is socially and culturally formed by the society in which one lives. Therefore, these roles are the expected behaviors depicted by society for the two gender types. These expectations determine what behavioral traits a boy or girl should have. Examples of gender characteristics or behavior in males can include being aggressive, dominant, ambitious, and strong. Socialization theory suggests that children are taught to behave a certain way according to their sex. An example of this would be that children learn by watching their parents in the roles that they play. Another example would consist of the type of toys that we buy our children. Such as, we buy boys Tonka trucks and Army toys, while we buy girls dress up sets and babies. Chores designated to us could also reinforce or influence our gender roles. Examples of this could be designating males to take out t he trash, whereas females help in the kitchen and with cleaning. Our book states that there are many social biases. The ones mentioned here are sexism, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, and ageism. These are not discrimination per say, but negative attitudes toward these people. Sexism is the term used for a negative attitude toward someone because of one’s gender. An exampl... Free Essays on Sex And Gender Free Essays on Sex And Gender Sex and Gender The definition of sex simply refers to whether one is a male or a female based upon reproductive organs. It can also be referred to as the biological sex, or sex chromosomes such as XX for females and XY for males. In our reading of Mary Whiton Calkins, we saw that she was discriminated based upon her sex. Even though she had fulfilled all of the requirements for her Ph.D., Harvard did not grant degrees to women at that time. In our reading about Mary Crawford, she was also discriminated against her sex, time and time again, throughout her life and career. Gender, on the other hand, is more simply put as gender roles. The roles are usually considered masculine or feminine. Gender is socially and culturally formed by the society in which one lives. Therefore, these roles are the expected behaviors depicted by society for the two gender types. These expectations determine what behavioral traits a boy or girl should have. Examples of gender characteristics or behavior in males can include being aggressive, dominant, ambitious, and strong. Socialization theory suggests that children are taught to behave a certain way according to their sex. An example of this would be that children learn by watching their parents in the roles that they play. Another example would consist of the type of toys that we buy our children. Such as, we buy boys Tonka trucks and Army toys, while we buy girls dress up sets and babies. Chores designated to us could also reinforce or influence our gender roles. Examples of this could be designating males to take out t he trash, whereas females help in the kitchen and with cleaning. Our book states that there are many social biases. The ones mentioned here are sexism, racism, classism, heterosexism, ableism, and ageism. These are not discrimination per say, but negative attitudes toward these people. Sexism is the term used for a negative attitude toward someone because of one’s gender. An exampl...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Chemical Imbalance and Depression

However, chemical imbalance doesn’t lead to every kind of depression seen in the lives of many people. Admin,2012) Approximately five percent of the United States’ population experiences a depressive episode that requires psychopharmacological treatment; in any one year, ten to twelve million Americans are affected by depression, with the condition twice as common in females than in males. (Ho, 2002) We all have chemical signals that are called neurotransmitters and they come in a variety of forms like Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine. All three of these neurotransmitters play a very important role in maintaining normal mood, motivation and concentration. What is Serotonin? Serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical that helps relay signals from one area of the brain to another. (Bouchez, 2007) In depressed brains, the Serotonin signal had been somehow weakened because of a chemical imbalance in the neurotransmitters. (Mukherjee, 2012) Low Serotonin levels are often attributed to anxiety, depression, panic attacks, insomnia, obesity, eating disorders, migraines, and alcohol abuse. (Integrative Psychiatry, 2012)Treatment for increasing levels of Serotonin in the brain are medication like Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil. These medications are known to work by making more serotonin in the brain. (Carver, 2002) If we have too much Serotonin you will have this feeling of bliss and it can also produce a life threatening condition known as Serotonin Syndrome. To date there have been no recorded or documented studies proving that the brain levels of Serotonin or any neurotransmitter are in short supply when depression or any mental illness develops. (Bouchez, 2007) Serotonin can be measured in the blood but they are not sure that blood levels effect the brain’s level of Serotonin. The next neurotransmitter that is part of the brain is Dopamine. What is Dopamine? Dopamine is in the area of the brain that is considered to be the neurotransmitter of focus and attention. Dopamine relays impulses across the microscopic spaces, called synapses, which exist between adjacent nerves, thus allowing the propagation of messages from one nerve to the next. (Christensen, 2011) Low levels of Dopamine make concentration and focus very difficult, this is associated with Attention- Deficit- Hyperactivity- Disorder. Carver, 2002) If patients are found to have low levels of Dopamine, you will be prescribed medication that actually slows down the hyperactive by increasing Dopamine boasting the level into normal range allowing them to focus and pay attention. Researchers say that if a patient is found to have prolonged exposure to Dopamine, patients are more apt to  abuse drugs. Most addictive drugs, such as cocaine and  amphetamines, directly or indirectly raise dopamine level s, and the chemical plays a major role in drug-induced highs. WebMD, 2005) The next neurotransmitter that is part of the brain is Norepinphrine. What is Norepinphrine? Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter often associated with the flight or fight response to stress. Norepinephrine also functions hormones in the body. Low levels of Norepinephrine are associated with a loss of alertness, poor memory, and depression. (Carver, 2002) It has been found that low levels of norepinephrine are in ADHD and depression patients. If the levels are two high patients may feel fatigue, have muscle cramps and a sense of being on edge. Almost all anxiety disorders involve norepinephrine elevations. (Carver, 2002) Psychiatrists would treat low levels of norepinephrine with newer antidepressants like Effexor and Serzone. Treatment of high levels of norepinephrine the psychologist would prescribe GABA, also known as Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid. Summary and Conclusion As I stated in my debate it is very clear that depression is one of the possible symptoms of chemical imbalance. However, chemical imbalance doesn’t lead to every kind of depression seen in the lives of many people. Admin, 2012) Not all medication has the same dosage. There are many different types of medication that you can have prescribed if your brain is low or has high neurotransmitters such as Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine. If you feel like you are depressed go and see a Psychologist, so the correct medication can be prescribed to you. References Admin (2012). Is  depression  caused by chemical imbalance in the brain? Retrieved from http://smartsdepression. com/2012/04/27/is-depression-caused-by-chemical-imbalance-in-the-brain. Bouchez, Colette, (2007). Serotonin: 9 Questions and Answers. Article is a WebMD feature. Retrieved from http://www. webmd. com/depression/features/serotonin. Carver, Joseph MD, (2002). The â€Å"Chemical Imbalance† in mental health problems. Retrieved from http://www. drjoecarver. com/clients/49533/file/chemical%20imbalance. html. Christensen, Stephen, (2011). Depression treatment with dopamine. Retrieved from http://www. livestrong. com/article/362623-depression-treatment-with-dopamine/. Ho, Kathryn, (2002). Serotonin ; Depression. Retrieved from http://serendip. brynmawr. du/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/ho. html Integrative psychiatry, (2012). Serotonin. Retrieved from http://integrativepsychiatry. net/serotonin. html. Mukherjee, Siddhartha, (2012). Post-Prozac Nation. The Science and History of Treating Depression. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2012/04/22/magazine/the-science-and-history-of-treating-depression. hmtl. WebMD, (2005). Dopamine  may play new role in  depression. Article is from WebMD news archive. Retrieved from http://www. webmd/depression/news/20050728/dopamine-may-play-new-role-in-depression. . Chemical Imbalance and Depression However, chemical imbalance doesn’t lead to every kind of depression seen in the lives of many people. Admin,2012) Approximately five percent of the United States’ population experiences a depressive episode that requires psychopharmacological treatment; in any one year, ten to twelve million Americans are affected by depression, with the condition twice as common in females than in males. (Ho, 2002) We all have chemical signals that are called neurotransmitters and they come in a variety of forms like Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine. All three of these neurotransmitters play a very important role in maintaining normal mood, motivation and concentration. What is Serotonin? Serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical that helps relay signals from one area of the brain to another. (Bouchez, 2007) In depressed brains, the Serotonin signal had been somehow weakened because of a chemical imbalance in the neurotransmitters. (Mukherjee, 2012) Low Serotonin levels are often attributed to anxiety, depression, panic attacks, insomnia, obesity, eating disorders, migraines, and alcohol abuse. (Integrative Psychiatry, 2012)Treatment for increasing levels of Serotonin in the brain are medication like Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil. These medications are known to work by making more serotonin in the brain. (Carver, 2002) If we have too much Serotonin you will have this feeling of bliss and it can also produce a life threatening condition known as Serotonin Syndrome. To date there have been no recorded or documented studies proving that the brain levels of Serotonin or any neurotransmitter are in short supply when depression or any mental illness develops. (Bouchez, 2007) Serotonin can be measured in the blood but they are not sure that blood levels effect the brain’s level of Serotonin. The next neurotransmitter that is part of the brain is Dopamine. What is Dopamine? Dopamine is in the area of the brain that is considered to be the neurotransmitter of focus and attention. Dopamine relays impulses across the microscopic spaces, called synapses, which exist between adjacent nerves, thus allowing the propagation of messages from one nerve to the next. (Christensen, 2011) Low levels of Dopamine make concentration and focus very difficult, this is associated with Attention- Deficit- Hyperactivity- Disorder. Carver, 2002) If patients are found to have low levels of Dopamine, you will be prescribed medication that actually slows down the hyperactive by increasing Dopamine boasting the level into normal range allowing them to focus and pay attention. Researchers say that if a patient is found to have prolonged exposure to Dopamine, patients are more apt to  abuse drugs. Most addictive drugs, such as cocaine and  amphetamines, directly or indirectly raise dopamine level s, and the chemical plays a major role in drug-induced highs. WebMD, 2005) The next neurotransmitter that is part of the brain is Norepinphrine. What is Norepinphrine? Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter often associated with the flight or fight response to stress. Norepinephrine also functions hormones in the body. Low levels of Norepinephrine are associated with a loss of alertness, poor memory, and depression. (Carver, 2002) It has been found that low levels of norepinephrine are in ADHD and depression patients. If the levels are two high patients may feel fatigue, have muscle cramps and a sense of being on edge. Almost all anxiety disorders involve norepinephrine elevations. (Carver, 2002) Psychiatrists would treat low levels of norepinephrine with newer antidepressants like Effexor and Serzone. Treatment of high levels of norepinephrine the psychologist would prescribe GABA, also known as Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid. Summary and Conclusion As I stated in my debate it is very clear that depression is one of the possible symptoms of chemical imbalance. However, chemical imbalance doesn’t lead to every kind of depression seen in the lives of many people. Admin, 2012) Not all medication has the same dosage. There are many different types of medication that you can have prescribed if your brain is low or has high neurotransmitters such as Serotonin, Dopamine, and Norepinephrine. If you feel like you are depressed go and see a Psychologist, so the correct medication can be prescribed to you. References Admin (2012). Is  depression  caused by chemical imbalance in the brain? Retrieved from http://smartsdepression. com/2012/04/27/is-depression-caused-by-chemical-imbalance-in-the-brain. Bouchez, Colette, (2007). Serotonin: 9 Questions and Answers. Article is a WebMD feature. Retrieved from http://www. webmd. com/depression/features/serotonin. Carver, Joseph MD, (2002). The â€Å"Chemical Imbalance† in mental health problems. Retrieved from http://www. drjoecarver. com/clients/49533/file/chemical%20imbalance. html. Christensen, Stephen, (2011). Depression treatment with dopamine. Retrieved from http://www. livestrong. com/article/362623-depression-treatment-with-dopamine/. Ho, Kathryn, (2002). Serotonin ; Depression. Retrieved from http://serendip. brynmawr. du/bb/neuro/neuro99/web3/ho. html Integrative psychiatry, (2012). Serotonin. Retrieved from http://integrativepsychiatry. net/serotonin. html. Mukherjee, Siddhartha, (2012). Post-Prozac Nation. The Science and History of Treating Depression. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2012/04/22/magazine/the-science-and-history-of-treating-depression. hmtl. WebMD, (2005). Dopamine  may play new role in  depression. Article is from WebMD news archive. Retrieved from http://www. webmd/depression/news/20050728/dopamine-may-play-new-role-in-depression. .

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Any topic (writer's choice) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 269

Any topic (writer's choice) - Essay Example According to the essay the industry George’s company is operating in deals with goods with a short lifecycle, after which they lose their value. The shirts are only valuable for each event they are made for, after which their value falls and they can only be sold at a fraction of the price. Another product that can be considered similar is daily newspapers, which cannot be sold at the same price a day after. The company's sales cannot be determined with certainty, and probabilities are used to estimate expected sales. Probabilities are used to predict the number of attendees to the events and the number of attendees likely to buy the shirts as well. Demand side probabilities are afterward used to estimate the volumes of the supply side to order.From this paper it is clear that  decision alternatives George has to make are between orders of 5000, 7500 and 10000 shirts. A larger order has a volume discount. He also has to decide on the percentage of people attending the concer t interested in buying the shirts being 5%, 10% or 15% of the total attendance. Given his expectation of a medium attendance of 50000 grandstand seats and the guaranteed 20000 for the standing area, 10% of the total of 70000 gives a minimum of 7000 shirts. An order of 7500 shirts will cost $25250.  Compare this to his preferred order of 5000 shirts. They will cost $17750. Selling them to agents at $100 a dozen he will make $41600 from 416 dozens.8 surplus shirts sold at $1.50 each will generate $12.